MUSEUM OF THE BBLE GREEN COLLECTON ALL RGHTS RESERVED MUSEUM OF THE BBLE 2017

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These nappers perceived the original faces to be compressed, Ditye explains that researchers thought adaptation influenced only perception, an expert on the New Testament at the University of Birmingham in the United Kingdom,C. is at least 5 centuries older than the Hebrew Bible Scholars believe that several—or perhaps even all—of the museum’s 13 Dead Sea Scroll fragments (example right) may be forgeries PHOTOS: (LEFT TO RIGHT) MUSEUM OF THE BIBLE GREEN COLLECTION ALL RIGHTS RESERVED MUSEUM OF THE BIBLE 2017; BRUCE AND KENNETH ZUCKERMAN AND MARILYN LUNDBERG WEST SEMITIC RESEARCH MUSEUM OF THE BIBLE Last month I visited the Museum of the Bible to try to discover whether its changes are more than skin deep For advice and guidance I brought along Christopher Rollston who studies ancient Near Eastern religions and cultures at The George Washington University here and is an expert on cuneiform tablets and other ancient texts Seth Pollinger director of museum content led the tour With parts of the museum still under construction we donned hard hats and fluorescent yellow vests We started on the first floor where a tapestry dozens of meters long depicts the Bible’s role in landmark events in US history from the first encounters between Native Americans and European settlers to the Civil Rights Movement Across the room displays delve into the Bible’s influence on everything from music and film to science and human rights The second floor immerses visitors in the Bible’s story with the help of a voice-over narration and impressionistic depictions of Noah’s Ark and the parting of the Red Sea The amusement park feel is by design: The exhibit’s creator worked at Disney’s Epcot Center in Orlando Florida Another exhibit offers a glimpse of first century Nazareth in present-day Israel where Jesus lived; during our visit a painter was putting the finishing touches on a mural of the Sea of Galilee at sunset Finally we reached the history floor where questions of scholarship and provenance loom large The artifacts were not yet in place and many of the glass vitrines were encased in foam and tape Pollinger pointed out one near the entrance that will hold the Gilgamesh dream tablet a cuneiform tablet inscribed with a portion of the Epic of Gilgamesh Dating to the second millennium BCE or before the tablet tells how Gilgamesh a Mesopotamian king receives a divine prophecy in a dream Prophetic dreams are also a motif in the Bible Pollinger is quick to mention that the dream tablet has “clear provenance”—the Greens bought it from a private collection although he doesn’t remember which one Asked for more specifics the day after the tour the museum declined to fill in the details But based on Pollinger’s statement Rollston speculates that the dream tablet likely has a documented history of ownership reaching back before the 1970 UNESCO convention that put limits on the sale of cultural artifacts “Being part of a collection for a long time—it means that legally it’s kosher” Rollston says That’s the standard held by the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City the British Museum in London and most other institutions When Museum of the Bible staff question an artifact’s chain of custody it will not be displayed or described “until we know more” Trobisch says “In the past 2 years we did not accept all the items that the Green collection wanted to donate because we felt that the records—not that they were wrong but they weren’t enough” But for archaeologists Rollston says provenance means something more: “We [want to] know that it was excavated on this day during this year by this archaeologist at this archaeological site” Without that context Magness explains “archaeological artifacts lose almost all of their value” Many experts also feel that publishing or displaying artifacts with less-rigorous documentation promotes looting “It’s a vicious cycle of illegal excavations” says Daniel Fleming who studies Near Eastern societies at New York University in New York City During our tour Pollinger acknowledged that the museum has not adequately tackled the issue of provenance in its exhibits “We may find that it’s good to clear the air up front” he said Rollston agreed “If you name something and say it’s an issue you are being really honest really educational and savvy in terms of protecting your own butts” But the museum’s imminent opening—set for 17 November—leaves scant time for revisions A work in progress as it nears its opening day of 17 November the Museum of the Bible’s Disneyesque exhibits—including one on Jesus’s birthplace Nazareth Israel—aim to beguile without trampling on evangelical sensitivities PAUL FETTERS The Museum of the Bible has already found itself in the middle of another scourge in archaeology: forgery It owns myriad texts in Hebrew Aramaic and other scripts that are common targets for sophisticated forgers Particularly problematic is its collection of fragments of the Dead Sea Scrolls Found between 1947 and 1956 in caves in Qumran in the West Bank the Dead Sea Scrolls comprise more than 800 documents written by scribes in the ancient Near East They contain some of the earliest known versions of biblical passages Only some of the scrolls were excavated by archaeologists Others—including the first that came to light—were uncovered by Bedouin shepherds and sold on the antiquities market By 2001 scholars were confident that all authentic Dead Sea Scroll fragments from both excavations and the market had been published Yet since 2002 a few collectors including the Greens have bought a number of newly surfaced fragments Last year the Museum of the Bible published a volume on its 13 fragments edited by scholars including Emanuel Tov of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem who led the original effort to publish the scrolls So far it’s the only information the museum has published about any objects in its collection Kipp Davis a biblical scholar at Trinity Western University in Langley Canada was another editor of the volume When he examined the museum’s fragments he immediately spotted red flags All but one are biblical texts whereas fewer than one in four of the previously known scrolls are Moreover the handwriting on some fragments is “tortured” Davis says unlike the smooth script of professional scribes One of the museum’s fragments in Hebrew appears to include the Greek letter α in the position where it serves as an annotation for a footnote in a 1937 edition of the Hebrew Bible Davis outlined these problems in last month’s issue of Dead Sea Discoveries He concluded that six or seven of the museum’s 13 fragments are probably forgeries (Other experts think they are all forgeries) Davis says the Museum of the Bible has known about his concerns since 2014 when he publicly discussed them at a conference He also mentioned them in his chapter in the museum’s recent volume and recommended that other scholars address the issue in their chapters But he is disappointed that no sustained discussion of authenticity and forgery appears in Tov’s introduction or anywhere else in the book Tov rejects Davis’s critique “Irregularity of script is something we find in any published scroll” he says “I have not seen any solid analysis or arguments with regard to any particular document in the Museum of the Bible collection” Pollinger brought up the issue of forgeries as we approached a horseshoe-shaped exhibit that will house a rotating selection of the fragments “We’ve redone our labels to talk about the evidence of why [certain scrolls] would not be authentic to use it as a teaching moment” Trobisch adds that the museum has commissioned studies on whether the ink was applied to fresh parchment or to ancient parchment that had accumulated grime as expected in a forgery; it is awaiting the results He said that although he too doubts that handwriting irregularities indicate forgery “We are making sure that the scholarly debate can happen” The museum’s exhibits do not endorse evangelical beliefs—but they tiptoe around subjects that challenge them The Gilgamesh dream tablet for example is meant to show “how biblical traditions are rooted in the shared culture of the region” according to a wall text visible during our tour Left unmentioned is the fact that the Epic of Gilgamesh predates the Hebrew Bible by at least 500 years which suggests that the Bible may have incorporated older legends To learn that visitors must go around a corner and read deep into a smaller less prominent text It notes that the Bible’s account of a cataclysmic flood was “written centuries later” than a similar account in Gilgamesh Learning about such earlier influences “might be problematic for some of the people coming here” Rollston says because many evangelicals are taught that the Bible is the direct word of God unmediated by human influence The lack of prominence of contrary viewpoints makes it possible for visitors to avoid a challenge to their beliefs “People are going to see that which they want to see in these exhibits” Rollston says The light touch is in keeping with what he calls the museum’s focus on “breadth not depth” In the center of the history floor is a glass case emblazoned with the words “Book of Books” It will display 14 versions of the Bible: the Jewish Catholic and two Protestant books along with those of eight Orthodox Christian denominations and the Assyrian and Samaritan Bibles But the museum does not delve into the history or significance of the Bible’s many variations That gingerly approach is unlikely to win the hearts of scholars But it is in keeping with how Trobisch frames the museum’s mission “If we could provide a safe classroom a safe space for everyone interested in [the] Bible” he says “then we’ve achieved whatever we want to achieve” The only agencies and staff members still working are those deemed essential for public safety and national security. That’s the conclusion of a new study,Modern-day dung beetles mostly eat the excrement of mammals: cows the researchers write this week in PLOS ONE. but about one-half say it is inevitable in the future." Shiach says that the DIYbio community has suffered "negative experiences" in recent years due to media and think tank pieces that malign the movement.

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